Travel guide of Pingyao
>>Town God's Temple
In the east of the ancient city of Pingyao, it newly establish in the beginning of Ming dynasty, rebuild in Ming Dynasty the 33rd year of Jiajing (A.D. 1544 ), in the Kangxi, Qianlong period of Qing dynasty, It is mended and built, destroyed in the fire during the temple fair in the ninth year of Xianfeng in Qing dynasty (A.D. 1859 ), build continuously three year (A.D. 1864 ) of Tongzhi period of Qing dynaty, The extant architecture scale, belong to Qing Dynasty structure, the temple institute is mighty, the overall arrangement is intact. Unify in three temples of " Town God's Temple " , " temple of the God of Wealth " , " god of the kitchen temple " is out of the common of Town God's Temple in Pingyao.
Town God's Temple lies in the central axis of the whole buildings, stand in the north and face south, the front and back courtyard of three passages, the hall is tall and big and tall and straight, the overlooking mountain door, play building in front of the hall, it is a typical architecture form of Chinese Taoism temple palace to bring up the rear in the imperial sleeping palace. Decorated archway, mountain door, play building, offering range upon range of hall, city god hall, imperial sleeping palace storey to enter, veranda, Guanting Reservoir, things wing-room, depth of side hall in a palace or temple link to each other, run through for an organic whole, it officer architectural style at the administration, its theology of interest and charms also to have last characteristic temple palace and "before get into bed backwards " function the getting more obvious very. The exquisite coloured glaze belongs to the original paper of Qing Dynasty, go through vicissitudes for a century on the roof of main hall, color and luster as before, peacock blue products all kinds of to study ancient coloured glaze rare treasure especially. God of the kitchen temple, temple of the God of Wealth lies in the east side and the west side, sets up another institute, establish one's own system. The temple of Town God's Temple, the God of Wealth, god of the kitchen temple communicate with each other, primary and secondary is clearly demarcated, the temple links to each other, the imposing manner is grand, the overall arrangement rule is whole, the view is very peculiar .
The Town God's Temple of Pingyao is the best preserved Town God's Temple of our country at present, it is famous with big scale, intension is abundant, the building is precise and remarkable. The Town God's Temple of Pingyao no matter from the structure of the building, or some art dealt with, and mythical legend story shown in the hall, reflect China ancient Confucianism dish two teach for main fact's cultural intension, study the flat distant gift of ancient city and make the characteristic, religious system, the rare legacy of history of art of the building and ideology and culture.
>>The wall of ancient city of Pingyao
The ancient city wall of Pingyao, built in 827- 78 B.C. ZhouXuan emperor period. " The county annals of Pingyao " record, Western Zhou Dynasty senior general Yijifu, Yanyun stayed soldier herein severely. Reign of Ming Emperor Hongwu three years (A.D. 1370 ), for the need of military defense, extend for the city wall of bricks and stones of today on the original foundation of old city of Western Zhou Dynasty. This county town, have through 26 times of priority renovation among more than 500 years of Ming and Qing times. Numerous renovation, make the wall of ancient city of Pingyao is firmer, grand day by day. The wall at the ancient city, the city level is square, lean towards by southeast slightly to. The line of east, west, north is frank, south wall move towards the twists along the river only. The girth of city wall is 6157.7 meters (6,150 meters), the wall is 6 high --10 meters; Build protect moat is dark all 3.33 meter wide outside the wall. There are 6 city gates, have set up the suspension bridge outside every city gate, has built the hiproof gate tower of layers of eaves on the urn city; All have one of watchtower all around; The wall on four sides, every 60 meter, build enemy's one floor of view, there are enemy's floor of 72 views in all on the whole city wall. The city wall of Pingyao, fill out the soil to tamp in the wall, the peripheral blue brick is built and wrapped up in, pave bricks and drain off water on the top, four corners of the city wall, each build the watchtower, southeast corner have Kui star first floor also. The characteristic of the ancient city of Pingyao, lie in the ancient city basically takes the ancient building and local-style dwelling houses as the core. It is the structure of Chinese courtyard house that the people are in the majority, made up of several sets of institutes along the central axis, the middle is mostly that stub walls, arches over a gate of festoon are separated, form for two entering and three day when enters and basic overall arrangement forms of style of calligraphy of eye. Main building principal rooms is three or five brick arch cave dwelling, build, wrap the eaves while being of timber above, there is sparrow taking the place of and wood carving on the bright column. The roof is flat, some go to build the screen wall facing the gate of a house, floor of geomantic omen; The wing-room of east and west are changed to south room, street door pour of tip sometimes at the axis, there are screen walls opposite to the door on the left of central axis generally. Whole city centered in floor of city, made up of the city wall and every streets and lanes an huge the Eight Diagrams pattern, such ingenious plot, design the rigorous city with intact physique, add the ancient temple, market building, street, private residence in the city, have unfolded traditional civilization and culture to common people. The expert of the UN's Commission on Human Settlements of the United Nations says that " Pingyao is the ancient building centre of the world ".
>>The government of Pingyao county
Pingyao is the pottery ground, the emperor Yao seals herein for the first time, open Qin Gansu Province in the west, reach Yanjing in the north. Belong to the Jin Dynasty in spring and autumn dynasty, the Warring States belong to Zhao, the Northern and Southern Dynasties in order to avoid too military to called Dao switch over to flat and distant Wei, history is long, it is remote to build the county, thousands of years will come, our ancestor has created the magnificent and unsurpassed historical civilization on this land, the ancient city is world-famous for its rare architectural style of Ming and Qing Dynasties, there are ancient governments to have ancient cities, city government coexist, bring out the best in each other, bestowed by heaven god make in fact, a special skill in China. The government of Pingyao faces south, north and south more than 200 meters of axis, east and west are more than 100 meters wide, area is more than 20,000 square meters. Established in yuan to extant structure of Ming and Qing Dynasties of six years (A.D. 1346 ), besides a small amount of building of Yuan Dynasties, the majority is rebuilt in Wanli period of Ming dynasty, buildings principal and subordinate is in order, the structure is rational, military in right and in gentle on the left, have got into bed backwards ago. Total several or two hundred ninety nine and a half room of under house, It is the basic unit rule to reproduce completely organization most of dynasty. The government of Pingyao is grand in architecture, have symmetrical axis, the office is in front of it and the bed is backwards, military on the left and in gentle on the right, the building characteristic with orderly principal and subordinate, there are gates, respect gate, give up stone workshop, hall, gate, the inner chambers for womenfolk and immortal's floor on the central axis; East lateral line for land shrine, grain Room, flower room; West lateral line for prison, common Xie room, superintend and direct, catch drawing room, big kind post, dynasty in epitome of the basic unit most imperial palace in fact.
>>The stamp number of Rishengchang
Firstly appeared in Qing Dynasty, it was our country's first, the biggest stamp number engaged in exchange too. Rishengchang sit at the No 38 of west street of Pingyao, concentrated several extensive stamp numbers in this street that year, have to claim with " the first street of financial of Qing dynasty", gather together exceedingly high to down " but the great reputation is widely spread even more ", annual exchange volume can up to 1 million to 38 million. The appearance of the stamp number, has finished the backward situation that the silver dart like weapon is transported now, open up new era of China's financial circles. The present Risheng stamp number call museum of stamp number of China, consist of 20 over exhibition room altogether present a day, divided into a show of a historical data and original appearance and shown two parts on the whole, can find out the development orbit of the national banking of China from it.
>>Floor of stars in the Big Dipper
Lie in the southeast corner of city wall of Pingyao, build in the 39 year (1700 year ) of Kangxi Period of Qing dynasty, rebuild in 12 years (1873 ) of Tongzhi period. Stars in the Big Dipper, it is the general name of the first four stars (pivot , day Xuan , day pearl not exactly round in shape , day right of day ) in the Big Dipper to have another name called " Xuan pearl not exactly round in shape ". Because these four star arrange like the Dou, so name with chief( chief ancient Chinese prose meaning of " the custard is struggled against "). In addition it means " stars in the Big Dipper " one of " twenty-eight constellations into which the celestial sphere was divided in ancient Chinese astronomy " in Chinese ancient astronomy too. The floor body common height of stars in the Big Dipper is 24 meters, the upper and lower double layers, the ground floor is built with brick, the centre have passway like the circle, by it sets up that brick is tortuous to more go to in step, it is octagonal to last pavilion sharp for top floor to build, the model is added exquisitely, each abounds with the glazed tiles, the color and luster is beautiful, flamboyant, are a line of scenery on the top of city wall.
>>The Wang's compound
It is our country most heavy local-style dwelling houses ancient buildings, is the model of compound of Jin Dynasty, its building art and culture value can be rated as a special skill in China. The Wang's compound includes east compound, the west compound and filial piety justice shrine, the whole area is 34650 square meters, there are 54 courtyards in all, 1052 houses, is the courtyard that officers and traders all have of the Wang's of efficacious stone. East compound commonly called as high house precipice, build on the early years such as Jiaqing of Qing dynasty, it was an irregular shape castle type that contacted the housing group. The total characteristic of the castle is: Make use of momentum near the mountain, grow and change with the shape, one pile of institutes of one storey of buildings, in picturesque disorder, the imposing manner is grand, the function is complete, have basically inherited the pattern of getting into bed before our country after the hall. Main institute heavy to lean towards institute that courtyard make up by two garden type in southwest corner, suitable for host's having a rest. Main institute to made up of a row of 13 - hole cave dwellings and divide to protect fort institute four light courtyard into in directly north of backyard. The whole east compound is large-scale, of a tightly knit structure in architecture, all kinds of courtyard has been already a perfect pair, come out as an article independently, now, varied door either latent or its, cause to somebody have the feel of the courtyard have institute, door sets of maze type of door. Go out of east west fort door of compound, pass by one U-shaped ditch ravine side road, it is west compound. West compound commonly called as red pieces of fort, one regular castle type closing type housing group, it is all the same to face and lean against as the east compound. Overlook the west compound, its level presents is very regular rectangle, 105 meters wide from east to west, 180 meters long from south to north. Because the fort door is red, people all call the west compound for " red forts ". Fort have 27 of courtyard in all, except 6 in the top, other are seven . The overall arrangement of every institute is very much the same, the majority is one original two besides and two courtyard, rely mainly on adding and piercing through the corridor in the cave dwelling positively, the top floor builds the cave dwelling or builds the pavilion room. Most courtyards regard centre line in the north and south as the axis of symmetry, the east and west are basically symmetrical. There are some courtyards is lean towards one set of institutes too, the gate leans towards in the southeast direction, is a longer passway in the gate, the south in the west of the passway is the door leading to front courtyard, the North is the open door of the institute later on.
Lie in the northeast corner of Huangdong village of five kilometers of the southwest of Taigu county, border on the south with railway of Tong-Pu and national highway 108 in the north. That was more than 400 years ago in the house, cover an area of 10638 square meters, with a construction area of 6348 square meters, keeping the buildings in Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Republic of China three generations, countless treasures are being displayed, it is trader's cultural scenic spot of the Jin Dynasty developed newly. This house is with the towering elegance, the deep and serious and simple and unsophisticated characteristic precededs in a group of the first of courtyard. The house faces south and sit in the west, 98 meters long from south to north, 66 meters wide from east to west, cover an area of 6468 square meters, the courtyard takes the form of " longevity " word, divide two parts in the north and south, the east and west have three hallway compound side by side, join three building which have three floors and the height is17m, a set of 15 small courtyards inside, have 277 extant rooms. Its architectural style not merely melts and swings the southern and northern architectural style, has absorbed the ancient building culture of Europe. Whole building carved beams and painted rafter, dragon floor phoenix pavilion in a compact mass, stroll corridor to be Wu circuitous, look eaves tooth high rafter, fine one huge magnificent rich and powerful family house! Many good fortune institute is main institute, face to main entrance, the plane figure is two Jin institute, one stock institute two of the south pour of building pay attention to flower door put on courtyard, the long and wide is 5:1. The number of the wing-room of east and west is five respectively, due north is the hall, three of face width, enter deep to eight set a roof beam in place, hall open up passway separately while being about, front courtyard east wall have side doors communicate with owner's institute, two enter institute east and west wing-room is five respectively, due north set up three rooms of buildings of 5 of face width, it is that more than three biggest power person's masters lived to establish in Ming Dynasty.
Stand on the top of the building of 17 meters high, look far into the distance all around, give somebody the completely relaxed and happy feeling. Then see this three pavilion which have four corners light before one's eyes, the face width is three room, stand in the north outside the residence, look far into the distance, in indistinct, vast, three animals do eastwards, are ox, pig, sheep to the west from the east separately. In early morning at the time of the fog mist and mist, or when the dusk is boundless and indistinct at dusk, stand in the distant place viewing and admiring, three garrets are exactly like three " oxen " with huge head , " sheep " , " pig " shape with whole building. This kind chases construction consciousness chased very newly, is added somewhat brilliantly and mysteriously by the house.
>>The temple of town country
The Haodong village which is 25 kilometers of the north of Pingyao county, it is begin to build of five generation period north Han dynasty, is 1 kilometers away from the Tongsahn station of Tongpu railway. The temple divided into two parts of before and the backford, there are king's hall, ten thousand halls of the temple, third Buddha floor, etc. from the south to the north sequentially. Ten thousand halls of the temple are the main building of the front courtyard, it is one of the extant oldest timber structure buildings of our country, though the scale of this hall is not big, but the model is grand, the imposing manner is outstanding . Hall have 14 of painted sculpture in all, hall Buddha jar centre offer have Sakyamuni picture, Jiaye, Anan two major disciple to wait upon, Buddhist patriarch's model is tall and big, one is dignified, has strong hitting the Tang style. Three Buddha is the main building of backyard in floor, because hall enshrine and worship law Buddha, newspaper Buddha, should Buddha gain the name, the most famous one is the mural painting of Ming Dynasty on the wall around in this hall, regard life of Buddhist patriarch and Sakyamuni as the main content, the composition is intact and smooth, is a treasure in the mural painting in Ming Dynasty.
>>Pair of forest temple
Lie in the Qiaotou village which 6 kilometers away from the Pingyao ancient city, originally known as " Zhongdu temple ", commemorate " pairs of forest death of monks or nuns " saying , when the Northern Song Dynasty, change to Pair of forest temple. Rebuild for two years (A.D. 571 ) in neat Wuping of the north. Go through and maintain, it is mostly the works of Ming Dynasty to be in existence.
Whole buildings, face south and sit at the north, cover an area of 15,000 square meters, the east for the deep meditation institute, the book room, waiting to be opened. The west is the temple group, by ten different palaces make up the front and back courtyard of three passages by the style. Pagoda tree of Tang dynasty, tablet of Song, clock of Ming dynasty, mural painting enhance each other's beauty, form the scenic spot of one party. 1,500 over works, they inherit Tang and Song Dynasty, Jin, yuans of fine tradition of painted sculpture by wooden fetus clay sculpture all, the outstanding one in our country will mould tomorrow, praised as " the artistic treasure-house of eastern painted sculpture " by the expert. The sculpture content will have Buddha, Bodhisattva, king, spirit, there are various common customs personages of mortal world too, there are tower pavilions, there are mountains and rivers and cloud and stone, the tactics are changeable, melt round carving , relief, hang moulding, the wall is moulded in an organic whole. List in " the legacy register of the world " together with flat distant ancient city wall, town main first beauty spot, temple ,etc. of country, 1997. Called " the real, unique jewellery " by UNESCO.
>>The qingxu temple
Lie in the north of east street, the original name is Taiping temple, establish in Gaozong period of Tang dynasty, it is the Taoist temple. Keep historical relics such as some very valuable ancient tablets,etc. here is the site of historical relics office of the county now. The Qingxu temple sit at the north and face to the south, the most exact building are built in Ming and Qing dynasty. There are ten building of whole temple, there are three courtyard of the front and the back, there are plate building, mountain gate, dragon and tiger palace, Sanqing palace, YUhuang pavilion and do on buildings. There is a stone tablet in Yuan Dynasty in Sanqing halls, the front characters of the tablet were Mongolian, have very high historical data value. Mould the statue with Green Dragon, white tiger in dragon's tiger's hall, the look is bold, the figure is intact, the masterpieces in the statue of Yuan Dynasty. In addition, also have Tang and Song Dynasty, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties more than 20 times of upright stone tablet of every generation while watching.
>>Street in Ming and Qing Dynasties
It is the south street of the ancient city of Pingyao, it is one of the essential parts of the cultural heritage of ancient city, can refract the colorful of the ancient city, it is the important scene of Pingyao. The Pingyao ancient city regards south street as the axis, the floor of city of supreme building of ancient city is the axis, form " left grandfather right society " , " whether left gentle right military " , " civil and military and distant " , symmetrical overall arrangement " in order from head to foot ". The position of the street in the ancient city was particularly outstanding in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In the ancient street more than 750 meters long, collect ancient shop of the magnitude and reach one hundred in luxuriant growth, the both sides of street which is not wide, stands the simple and unsophisticated door frame. There are two lines of very deep rut impression on the granite threshold of each honourable courtyard, therefore can prove the flat once brilliance at a distance ---The traders from all parts of the country guest drive the carriage, carries goods and money in year on the back, grind the deep rut on the land in the ancient city. In the dialect with a mixed accent, the hoofbeat sound links up a financial main road with illustrious reputation in the period of Ming and Qing. The building in ancient times on both sides of the street in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, all-embracing, there are stamp number, native bank, pawnshop, herbal medicine shop, butcher's shop, smoke shop, general sho , silks and satins village ,etc., nearly forgive all trade of the commerce at that time. Soak a century, show old already everywhere, that order strength of character all over the world still here once. This small commercial ancient street has brought up large quantities of commercial talents. That year, the truly great person of the trader, in the prosperity " towards street three city of sunset of noon in the morning ", the sea of struggling trader the Jin Dynasty, move about freely and quickly, the golden age to portray China's finance.
Visit and walk on the street of Ming and Qing Dynasties, can understand the United Nations popular science document to organize, comment to Pingyao sentence that deeply: "The ancient capital of China, concentrates history as the palace, and the ancient city of Pingyao, dissolve history in the local-style dwelling houses. "